An accessible method that is typically well tolerated is the nasal cavity. The large number of blood arteries in the nasal mucosa aid in medication absorption, which can occasionally be almost as effective as intravenous injections. Both local and systemic medication administration can be accomplished using the nasal route. For instance, localised nasal medication administration is frequently used to treat nasal disorders such congestion, rhinitis, sinusitis, and associated allergy illnesses. These conditions are all connected to the nasal cavity. Corticosteroids, antihistamines, anticholinergics, and vasoconstrictors are just a few of the many medications that may be delivered locally. More focus has been placed in recent years on exploiting the nose as the body’s entrance gateway in order to achieve systemic medication activity.
To achieve systemic medication effects, a variety of pharmaceutical dosage forms can be utilised, including solutions, gels, suspensions, emulsions, liposomes, and microparticles. Nasal Drug Delivery System dosage forms are primarily made to take advantage of a drug’s quick beginning of action when delivered orally. For instance, intra-nasal delivery of morphine and ketamine can provide powerful analgesic effects quickly. Additionally, some vaccinations, including those for influenza, can also be given via a possible route through the nose.
Many drugs have unpleasant taste and odor and a nasal drug delivery system can help mask these unpleasant effects. These devices are both systemically and locally applied, and have grown in popularity in the last five years.
Bioadhesive polymers have been studied for their ability to adhere to the mucus membrane and spread over the nasal epithelium. These polymers have secondary chemical bonds with mucin molecules. Bioadhesive systems have been tested for the delivery of antibiotics, insulin, and scopolamine hydrochloride. In addition to these studies, several other Nasal Drug Delivery System have been developed.